A total of 570 patients were diagnosed with second cancers. The rate of second cancers was 15.5/1,000 person-years in radiotherapy recipients compared with 11.4/1,000 person-years in those not treated with radiation, a difference that translated into a 25% increased relative risk of second cancers in radiotherapy recipients. Compared with men not treated with radiation, those who were had a 60% increased risk of lung cancer, after adjusting for age, race, education, family history of cancer, smoking, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
This study looked at men involved with NCIs Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer trial. It found men that underwent radiation had a higher chance of contracting lung cancer later in life. This is an interesting finding which would not be expected since the lungs are not in the radiation field. The same patients radiation patients did not have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer as compared to the surgical patients. This is in contrast to past studies that found a higher risk of developing bladder cancer for patients that received radiotherapy, especially if they were prior smokers.